By Leonardo Morlino
Drawing on a scientific, empirical research of 4 key Southern eu international locations, Portugal, Spain, Greece, and Italy, this insightful examine identifies a number of key facets of democratic consolidation: consensus and legitimization, celebration method and celebration association, and the ways that geared up and non-organized pursuits are with regards to events and the associations of kingdom. This e-book bargains the 1st huge, comparative research of consolidation and trouble in those international locations, and contours a wealth of updated details on social gathering firms, curiosity institutions, the media, and public opinion. even supposing in actual fact targeting Southern Europe, the author's findings are tremendous proper for figuring out the politics of a number of different areas, together with jap Europe, Latin the US, and South East Asia.
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Extra resources for Democracy between Consolidation and Crisis: Parties, Groups, and Citizens in Southern Europe (Oxford Studies in Democratization)
If there is no crisis, then the core process of consolidation takes place imposing its own logic during the ﬁrst years after installation: the relationships between regime and civil society are established and the institutions show their own internal self-reproductive dynamics. With regard to the empirical cases, this means that consolidation generally takes place in about ten or twelve years or at least three full parliamentary terms. If a crisis takes place, the other process is also over. The crisis may come during installation, immediately after it, or during an abortive attempt at consolidation.
Its very presence would suggest that no consolidation process is going on or, at the very least, it is a challenged and weak one. This point will be developed in the next chapter. 30 This is what Schmitter (1988 and 1992) has in mind when he deals with partial regime. 31 See Ch. 6. ACTORS, INSTITUTIONS, AND CHANGE 19 crisis of the institutional arrangement that had almost been installed, change with the establishment of another kind of democracy, and the beginning of a new, long process of consolidation.
Schedler (1997a: 27) might also be right when afﬁrming that ‘any ambition to “legislate” the semantic ﬁeld of DC into some imagery unity seems doomed to failure’. At the same time the clariﬁcation of the starting points of view, the related empirical deﬁnitions of consolidation, and the other contiguous concepts seem a necessary step in an empirical research (see below in the text). Of course, Schedler also proposes his deﬁnition of consolidation in another paper (see 1997b ). Besides the above-mentioned works there are also contributions to authoritarian consolidation.