By Neil Heyman
What used to be lifestyles relatively like for the standard soldier, sailor, airman, and civilian in the course of international battle I? was once it diverse for the British, French, and americans than it was once for the Germans? This paintings brings to lifestyles the army and civilian studies of standard humans on each side of the battle. This narrative specializes in how males have been recruited and educated, the gear they used, what they ate, trench struggle as a life-style, and the phenomenon of strive against.
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Extra resources for Daily Life During World War I
But trench warfare showed that pre-1914 expectations for artillery ﬁre were mistaken. Armies needed massive quantities of high-explosive ammunition able to demolish enemy fortiﬁcations. Such shells required a higher level of skill to produce, given the danger they posed for armaments workers. The failure to solve the problem of quality control crippled operations. For example, the large number of “dud” shells British munitions factories produced weakened the crucial barrage that preceded the Battle of the Somme in July 1916.
13 Alan Seeger was a young American who joined the French armed forces in mid-August. He received ﬁve weeks of training, then left for the front at the start of October. Placed just behind the battle line, Seeger and his unit were schooled in combat techniques, including mock battles with blank shells. 14 BRITAIN’S ARMY Britain had the smallest army among the great powers of Europe. Shielded behind a powerful navy, the country used its army primarily to defend a global empire. The army had a total strength of approximately 12,800 ofﬁcers and 230,000 enlisted men,15 but this small force had the best military skills on the European scene.
The British Stokes mortar was little more than a lightweight tube with a spike at its base. A shell, containing a charge to propel it, was dropped down the tube, struck the spike, then ﬂew toward the enemy. Its shells were colorcoded with a green one set to go 300 yards and a red one 450, and a trained crew could ﬁre a shell every three seconds. One German soldier, who had doubtless experienced enemy artillery and machine-gun ﬁre, recorded his feeling that the trench mortar was the worst weapon he faced.