By Simon Mackenzie, Penny Green
The looting of antiquities occurs regularly and plenty of international locations have wealthy deposits of cultural fabric. The record of resource international locations is lengthy, however the such a lot excessive profile instances of looting were in Egypt, Italy, Peru, Mexico, Greece, Turkey, and China. Antiquities are hugely collectable, and there are numerous fashionable overseas facilities for alternate â€” such a lot significantly London, long island, Paris, Brussels, Hong Kong, Geneva, and Bangkok â€” however the industry operates throughout nationwide borders. it really is in the advanced overseas and native regulatory context that the essays offered right here emerge, focusing upon 3 parts particularly: the call for for looted antiquities, the provision of cultural artifacts which originate in resource international locations, and law of the foreign industry in antiquities. Criminology has lengthy been drawn to transnational crime and its law, whereas archaeology has been attracted to the pedagogical effects of antiquities looting. In those essays, either disciplines current new facts and research to forge a extra coherent knowing of the character and failings of the regulatory framework at the moment in position to wrestle the legal industry in antiquities. The e-book examines the kingdom of rules within the antiquities industry, with a specific specialize in the UK's place, but additionally as regards to the overseas context extra in most cases. it really is a useful advisor which supplies suggestion on fighting the alternate in illicit antiquities and may be of curiosity to criminologists, coverage makers, and regulators.
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Extra resources for Criminology and Archaeology: Studies in Looted Antiquities (Onati Internation Series in Law and Society)
What Mackenzie’s study seems to show is a genuine conflict between incommensurable values. 6 This kind of deep conflict between an offender’s values and those that their acts are condemned for infringing is just what Matza (1964) found to be generally absent among 5 When I gave a version of this paper in Mexico, a member of the audience suggested (apparently without irony) that the peasants’ insensitivity to transcendent values might best be understood by applying the theories of Lombroso. Needless to say, this is not what I had in mind.
Put simply, once the criminologists have demonstrated that punishment as found in the criminal justice system is not effective in reducing the traffic, it seems reasonable to argue for a shift from punishment to persuasion. The problem then arises as to who will do the persuading, or where that persuasion should be positioned. While criminology as a field can be an important part of any solution, it in all probability will not provide the major institutional locus or impetus for the needed social change.
Plundered cultural heritage sites are destroyed for ever, and their knowledge lost to future generations. Criminology in our view, can, and should, continue to provide directions for the prevention and control of this form of illicit traffic. REFERENCES Alder, C and Polk, K (2005) ‘The Illicit Traffic in Plundered Antiquities’ in P Reichel (ed), Handbook of Transnational Crime & Justice (London, Sage), pp 98–113. —— (2007) ‘Crime in the World of Art’ in HN Pontell, and G Geis (eds), International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime (New York, Springer), pp 347–57.