By Ronald L. Akers, Christine S. Sellers, Wesley G. Jennings
In Criminological Theories, the famous criminologist Ronald Akers offers thorough description, dialogue, and appraisal of the best theories of crime/delinquent habit and law/criminal justice - the starting place and historical past of every idea and its modern advancements and adherents.
Akers bargains a transparent clarification of every thought (the imperative recommendations and hypotheses of every idea in addition to severe standards for comparing every one concept by way of its empirical validity).
Researchers and librarians, in addition to common readers, will locate this e-book a really great tool and should applaud its transparent and comprehensible exposition of summary options.
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Additional info for Criminological Theories: Introduction and Evaluation
However, when this theory is modified rationality is assumed and explanatory variables from other other level of rationality theories are added, it is more likely to be upheld by the data. When deterrence and rational choice theories are so modified, they resemble deterrence more the modern modem social bonding or social learning theories than the deterrence or pure rational choice models. models. Therefore, Therefore, positive positive classical deterrence modified versions are more appropriately research findings on these modified viewed as validating these other other theories from which the more powerful powerful rather than validating validating deterrence deterrence or explanatory variables are taken, rather rational choice theories alone.
Ing, but the correlation There is more empirical support when deterrence deterrence concepts are exinformal social processes panded to take into account the informal processes of reward, another type punishment, and moral beliefs. Rational choice theory is another of expansion or modification modification of of deterrence deterrence theory. When rational choice choice of stated in i n its pure form, it does not stand up well to empirical theory is stated modified so that a relatively low evidence.
That is, the likelihood of crime increases persons present present who are motivated to commit a crime, is one or more persons available, and the absence absence a suitable target or potential victim that is available, of formal or informal informal guardians who could deter deter the potential offender. offender. of presence or absence absence of these elements elements is variable, and "the "the The relative presence risk of criminal victimization varies dramatically among the circumstances and locations in which people place themselves and their propfrom erty" (Cohen and Felson, 1979:595).