By Judith Rumgay
Judith Rumgay explores theoretical factors of the alcohol crime dating, severely analyzes their empirical aid in examine, and develops a standpoint in line with "expectancy theory", which means that alcohol enables offending much less via its actual pharmacological results than in the course of the number of logic ideals approximately these results that are embedded in daily life. An empirical research of magistrates' sentencing judgements illuminates the range of causes for crime according to intoxication, throughout the entice good judgment ideals approximately alcohol's results.
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Extra resources for Crime, Punishment and the Drinking Offender
Contemplation of an offence appears to arouse conflicting feelings, as offenders weigh the anticipated gain against uncontrollable hazards (Carroll and Weaver 1986; Walsh 1986). Intoxication is one strategy employed by offenders for coping with such conflict (Walsh 1986). Nevertheless, it is unclear what in the nature of conflict makes it amenable to alcohol's tension-reducing effects, or in Theories of Intoxicated Crime 43 what circumstances intoxication will be preferred to other anxietyreducing strategies (Cappell and Greeley 1987; Sher 1987).
Consumption itself is moderated by sipping, passing on, pauses and conversation (Archard 1979; Peterson and Maxwell 1958; Rubington 1958). Crude spirit consumption is an intermittent response to economic necessity and does not cause continuous reliance on the practice (Archard 1979; Cook 1975; Peterson and Maxwell 1958). The novice must practise consuming it slowly, in small sips, made palatable with orange juice (Archard 1979; Cook 1975). Such evidence of voluntary self-regulation has presented academic alcohol theory with the problem of explaining why alcoholics continue or resume heavy drinking in the face of the obviously disastrous consequences.
One possible explanation is methodological. Despite the advantages of crime specificity, exclusive concentration on homicide might itself obscure vital differences between fatal and non-fatal assaults (Bankston 1988). Had Luckenbill's study included non-fatal assaults, alcohol 34 Crime, Punishment and the Drinking Offender involvement might have emerged as a distinctive factor in homicide. Certainly, alcohol is a prevalent situational feature in Luckenbill's account. Thus, Luckenbill's analysis may embrace the significance of alcohol without explicitly identifying it.