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This invaluable reference complements assurance of functional functions through the inclusion of recent regulate approach versions, troubleshooting guidance, and extended assurance of complicated platforms specifications, akin to elevated velocity, precision and distant functions, bridging the space among the advanced, math-heavy keep an eye on idea taught in formal classes, and the effective implementation required in genuine settings.
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Extra info for Control System Design Guide. Using Your Computer to Understand and Diagnose Feedback Controllers
25a. The power converter is saturated but integral windup is limited. Now, set “Windup” to 1000%, effectively removing windup control. 25b. 23: A clamped integral can maintain synchronization during power converter saturation. 24: Analog circuit with 12-V integral clamp into 10-V saturation. 25: From Experiment 3A: Improper windup causes overshoot. Windup ¼ 200% (a) and 1000% (b). 1 Avoid Saturation when Tuning Finally, when tuning, keep the commands small enough that the power converter does not saturate.
To have instability, the loop gain must also be equal to unity. Similar to phase lag, each block in the loop contributes gain. The total gain through the loop is the accumulation of the block gains; when measured in decibels, which are logarithmic units, the loop gain is the sum of the gains of the individual blocks. Consider if, at 240 Hz (here, the frequency of 180 phase shift), the gain around the loop were low, say, 10% ( À20 dB); the sign reversal would not produce sustained oscillations because the loop thoroughly attenuates the signal as it traverses the loop.
4 Margins of Stability Understanding that instability results when the loop gain is 0 dB :180 ; the margin of stability can be quantified in two ways. The first measure is phase margin, or PM6,80. PM is defined by the phase when the frequency is at the gain crossover frequency (the frequency where gain ¼ 0 dB); specifically, PM is the difference between the actual phase and À180 . Were the PM 0 , the gain would be 0 dB and the phase e180 , so the system would be unstable. 11a shows the open-loop plot measuring PM: The gain crossover frequency is about 50 Hz and the PM is 55 .