By N. Schwarz
This article offers an outline of age-related alterations in cognitive functioning and explores the consequences of those alterations for the self-report of attitudes and behaviours. The participants are researchers in cognitive getting older and survey method, and chapters are written to be obtainable to non-specialists. the 1st a part of the ebook offers a overview of past due Nineties cognitive getting older study, masking subject matters corresponding to operating reminiscence, inhibition, autobiographical reminiscence, metacognition and a focus. A moment part examines concerns linked to getting old, language comprehension and interpersonal verbal exchange, whereas the ultimate stories study into age-related alterations in survey responding. Of specific curiosity is how age-related alterations in cognitive and communiticative functioning impression the question-answering technique in learn occasions. Experimental study illustrates that older and more youthful respondents are differentially laid low with query order, query wording and different positive factors of questionnaire layout. therefore, many age-related modifications in suggested attitudes and behaviours might mirror age-related transformations within the reaction strategy instead of adjustments in respondents' genuine attitudes or behaviours. Implications for examine layout and mental theorizing are addressed, and useful ideas are provided. As such, the ebook may be of curiosity not just to these within the fields of cognitive growing older and gerontology, but in addition to survey methodologists and researchers in public opinion, advertising and marketing, and similar fields, who depend upon respondents' solutions to questions of their study.
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Extra resources for Cognition, Aging and Self-Reports
Self-Reports and Cognitive Aging In Chapter 2, Norbert Schwarz provides an introduction to the cognitive and communicative processes involved in answering a question. Drawing on research into context effects on self-reports, he addresses how respondents arrive at an interpretation of the question posed to them, retrieve relevant information from memory, form a judgment, and report this judgment to the researcher. Importantly, respondents' performance at each of these steps is highly context dependent, and the underlying processes are likely to be age sensitive, as many research examples illustrate.
Thinking about answers: The application of cognitive processes to survey methodology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. S. Bureau of the Census. (1989). Current population reports (Series P-25, No. 1018). Washington, DC: Census Bureau. Page 15 PART I SELF-REPORTS AND COGNITIVE AGING Page 17 Chapter 2 Self-Reports of Behaviors and Opinions: Cognitive and Communicative Processes Norbert Schwarz Social scientists have long been aware that minor changes in question wording, question format, or question order may profoundly affect the answers that research participants provide.
Yet, the accumulating evidence pertaining to age-related changes in cognitive resources (Park, Chapter 3), memory (Craik, Chapter 5; Rubin, Chapter 8; Yoon, May, & Hasher, Chapter 6), metacognition (Cavanaugh, Chapter 7), and text comprehension (Kemper & Kemtes, Chapter 11) suggests that the cognitive components of the question-answering process are likely to be age sensitive. Similarly, research into age-related changes in speech processing (Wingfield, Chapter 10) and communication (Kwong See & Ryan, Chapter 12) indicates that at least some of the communicative components of the question-answering process are also likely to change over the life-span.