Geography by Strabo

By Strabo

Страбон (64/63 г. до н. э. — 23/24 г. н. э.), древнегреческий географ и историк. Родился в Амасии (Малая Азия), эллинистическом городе с многочисленным греческим населением, в знатной, богатой семье. Предки Страбона были высшими должностными лицами Понтийского царства. Прадед был военачальником царя Митридата VI Эвпатора. Ещё один родственник Страбона был верховным жрецом в Коммагене, т. е. вторым лицом после царя. Страбон получил хорошее образование. Путешествовал по Греции, Малой Азии, Италии и Египту. Страбон — автор не дошедших до нас «Исторических записок», задуманных как продолжение истории Полибия и содержавших описание событий со 146 г. до н. э. (разрушение римлянами Коринфа и Карфагена) до около 31 г. до н. э. (видимо, до битвы при Актии). И также автор знаменитой «Географии», написанной около 7 г. до н. э. В «Географии» Страбон стремился описать ойкумену (обитаемую землю) на основе сопоставления и обобщения всех известных к его времени данных поэтому сочинение Страбона рассматривается в историографии как итог географических знаний античности. Из многих авторов, названных Страбоном, главными его источниками являлись географы Эратосфен, Гиппарх, Полибий, и Посидоний. Широко использовал Страбон малоазийскую традицию, особенно сведения историков Митридатовых войн (I в. до н. э.), сообщения которых зачастую восходят к локальным историческим и географическим трудам поэтому Страбоном полно описаны Кавказ и Боспорское царство. По замыслу автора «География» должна была служить практическим руководством для римских государственных деятелей, полководцев, провинциальной администрации, торговцев и т. д., поэтому она содержит большое количество исторических, этнографических, бытовых сведений в ряде случаев она является единственным источником. Из 17 книг «Географии» только первые две носят теоретический характер (посвящены математической географии), остальные содержат описание стран и областей (книги 3-6 — Испания, Галлия, Британия, Италия, Сицилия книги 7-10 — Северная и Восточная Европа, северные Балканы, Греция книги 11-14 — Северное и Восточное Причерноморье, Малая Азия книги 15-17 — Индия, Месопотамия, Аравия, Египет). «География» является фактически первым опытом исторической географии и представляет собой ценный исторический источник.
Это издание «Географии» Страбона в серии «The Loeb Classical Library» в восьми томах считается самым лучшим. Тома содержат древнегреческий текст и английский перевод, статьи и указатели, цветные карты и планы (в начале I, в конце V и VIII).

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Force & Accommodation in World Politics by Stanley E Spangler, Airpower Research Institute

By Stanley E Spangler, Airpower Research Institute

With fiscal pressures, demographic adjustments and the stated futility of nuclear battle progressively eroding the perceived application of conventional army strength, international locations are taking a look with new prefer at the conciliatory instruments that have been used a few successfully throughout the classical international relations of the nineteenth century (negotiation, bargaining, using inducements). briefly – a international relations emphasizing cooperation and lodging. strength will nonetheless be a major participant in foreign politics, specially at decrease degrees of clash. whereas the realm strikes slowly towards a few new defense association, it behooves the superpowers to stress a cooperative kind of international relations.

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Prophets Of Violence - Prophets Of Peace: Understanding the by Khalid Sohail

By Khalid Sohail

Can people reside based on ethical values but kill to accomplish freedom? Can peaceable, non-violent protest truly convey sought-after freedoms? Dr. Sohail examines the philosophies and lives of twelve progressive political and social figures, together with Martin Luther King, Jr., the Dalai Lama, Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Che Guevara, Franz Fanon, and Ho Chi Minh. In considerate, well-organized essays, he appears to be like at a large spectrum of cultures and their struggles opposed to repressive governments, in either constructing and constructed societies. Dr. Sohail distills the worldwide rivalries and the impression of imperialism and colonialism. He explains the dynamics of the continued fight for peace and non-violent technique of dramatic swap. Dr. Sohail learn the works of a lot of these revolutionaries, and right here info what units them aside and makes them varied from different in demand leaders. Prophets of Violence, Prophets of Peace effectively dissects the personalities of those nice leaders, delivering insights into heritage and the social point of view of every guy. this isn't a condemnation of armed fight, yet really an exploration of the contradictions and ambiguities of the internal lives of those twelve males and of the standards which led every one to selected both violent or peaceable suggestions and techniques.

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The United Nations Security Council and War: The Evolution by Vaughan Lowe, Adam Roberts, Jennifer Welsh, Dominik Zaum

By Vaughan Lowe, Adam Roberts, Jennifer Welsh, Dominik Zaum

This is often the 1st significant exploration of the United countries safety Council's half in addressing the matter of conflict, either civil and overseas, due to the fact that 1945. either in the course of and after the chilly warfare the Council has acted in a constrained and selective demeanour, and its paintings has occasionally led to failure. It has now not been--and used to be by no means outfitted to be--the middle of a accomplished method of collective protection. notwithstanding, it continues to be the physique charged with fundamental accountability for overseas peace and safety. It bargains targeted possibilities for foreign session and armed forces collaboration, and for constructing criminal and normative frameworks. It has performed an element within the aid within the occurrence of overseas conflict within the interval because 1945. The United international locations safety Council and War examines the level to which the paintings of the UN safety Council, because it has developed, has or has now not changed older platforms of strength politics and practices concerning the use of strength. Its start line is the failure to enforce the UN constitution scheme of getting wrestle forces below direct UN command. as a substitute, the Council has complicated using foreign peacekeeping forces; it has licensed coalitions of states to take army motion; and it has constructed a few unanticipated roles reminiscent of the institution of post-conflict transitional administrations, foreign legal tribunals, and anti-terrorism committees. The e-book, bringing jointly distinct students and practitioners, attracts at the equipment of the legal professional, the historian, the coed of diplomacy, and the practitioner. It starts with an introductory review of the Council's evolving roles and tasks. It then discusses particular thematic matters, and during quite a lot of case experiences examines the scope and boundaries of the Council's involvement in struggle. It bargains frank money owed of ways belligerents considered the UN, and the way the Council acted and infrequently didn't act. The appendices supply complete information--much of it now not formerly introduced jointly during this form--of the intense variety of the Council's actions. This publication is a undertaking of the Oxford Leverhulme Programme at the altering personality of warfare.

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Words of Conflict, Words of War: How the Language We Use in by Fathali Moghaddam, Rom Harré

By Fathali Moghaddam, Rom Harré

Phrases of clash, phrases of conflict: How the Language We Use in Political methods Sparks battling is an engaging exploration of the narratives leaders use to place either themselves and others during political procedures that bring about peace or clash. Drawing at the rather new box of "positioning theory," specialist essays supply insights into the methods phrases place us—for higher or worse—and impression our meant effects. the focal point on narratives, from the interpersonal to the overseas, ends up in a greater figuring out of political strategies and clash answer. half one of many research bargains with micropolitics and private positioning. half explores positioning by way of political events and factions. hyperlinks among micro and macro are illustrated by means of management reviews of people resembling President Barak Obama, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President George W. Bush, Governor Sarah Palin, and the Reverend Ian Paisley. the focal point all through is on how a pacesetter can use language to redirect collective politics in help of clash or of peace.

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Experiment in Occupation: Witness to the Turnabout ; by Arthur D. Kahn

By Arthur D. Kahn

As a player in lots of of the occasions he writes approximately in scan in career, Arthur Kahn bargains a richly unique account of the method wherein the struggle opposed to Nazism got here to be reworked into the chilly conflict. His tale finds how these within the army govt of Germany who have been devoted to engaging in the battle goals promulgated by means of Roosevelt and Eisenhower for a radical democratization of Germany have been finally defeated of their war of words with strong components within the army executive and in Washington who have been extra purpose upon launching a preemptive struggle opposed to the Soviet Union than upon the eradication of Nazism and German militarism. A twenty-three-year-old OSS operative, Arthur Kahn used to be assigned after D-Day to a mental battle unit, the place firstly he supervised prisoner-of-war interrogations after which served as an editor of intelligence. prompt to reply to requests from perfect Headquarters, he drafted proposals for mental struggle techniques to serious occasions on the entrance basically to find SHAEF directive banned calls to the Germans to rebellion. for that reason Kahn served in liaison with the Soviets and through the conflict of the Bulge at Montgomery's British headquarters. For a number of months ahead of and after VE Day he traveled in the course of the American sector as an intelligence investigator and wrote a document that resulted in the dismissal of normal George S. Patton as army Governor of Bavaria. Appointed leader Editor of Intelligence of the knowledge keep an eye on department, he produced the main influential intelligence weekly within the American quarter. Kahn's portrayal of occasions in postwar Germany presents warnings for present and destiny American experiments in overseas career.

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Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy by Morton H. Halperin

By Morton H. Halperin

The 1st variation of Bureaucratic Politics and overseas coverage is among the such a lot winning Brookings titles of all time. This completely revised model updates that vintage research of the position performed through the federal forms --civilian occupation officers, political appointees, and army officials --and Congress in formulating U.S. nationwide defense coverage, illustrating how coverage judgements are literally made. govt businesses, departments, and contributors all have sure pursuits to maintain and advertise. these priorities, and the conflicts they typically spark, seriously impression the formula and implementation of overseas coverage. a choice that appears like an orchestrated try and impact one other nation may possibly in reality signify a shaky compromise among rival parts in the U.S. executive. The authors offer a number of examples of bureaucratic maneuvering and exhibit how they've got encouraged our diplomacy. The revised version contains new examples of bureaucratic politics from the previous 3 a long time, from Jimmy Carter's view of the kingdom division to conflicts among George W. Bush and the paperwork concerning Iraq. the second one variation additionally contains a new research of Congress's position within the politics of overseas policymaking.

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