By Hanns-Christian Gunga, Victoria Weller von Ahlefeld, Hans-Joachim Appell Coriolano, Andreas Werner, Uwe Hoffmann
This publication comprehensively describes the physiological adjustments and results that happen in people in the course of spaceflight. It particularly provides the variations of the cardiovascular and the breathing process. particular alterations happening after 10, 20 or extra days in area are depicted. in addition, the ebook explains quite a few potent countermeasures which are required upon go back of the astronauts to Earth.
The ebook is a must have for all biomedical and medical researchers within the box of cardiovascular biology and breathing, and a desirable studying for all laymen, who desire to comprehend a section extra approximately spaceflight study and technology.
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Additional resources for Cardiovascular System, Red Blood Cells, and Oxygen Transport in Microgravity
Therefore, the return of venous blood is slow, leg vein capacity is increased, and arterial resistance is reduced . These challenges lead to a greater than normal amount of blood pooling below the hip level . Blood is no longer shifted to the upper body and is missing the heart and brain, leading to a faster heart rate, dizziness, and even fainting. Postflight exercise performance naturally depends on the state of the muscular system that has deconditioned during a period of disuse in microgravity, but is also influenced by the condition of the cardiovascular system.
A decreased mass and size of the left ventricle of the heart has been reported postflight [63, 64], which is part of the deconditioning effect on the cardiovascular system and influences the exercise capacity negatively. Some studies also report on a decreased capacity of blood to carry oxygen; see Chap. 3. Hypovolemic conditions of the cardiovascular system contribute most significantly to a decreased exercise capacity experienced by returning astronauts. Levine et al. measured a postflight exercise capacity that was 22 % worse than before flight.
Aviat Space Environ Med 63(9):789–794 31. Prisk GK, Guy HJ, Elliott AR, Deutschman RA, West JB (1993) Pulmonary diffusing capacity, capillary blood volume, and cardiac output during sustained microgravity. J Appl Physiol 75 (1):15–26 32. Hargens AR, Watenpaugh DE (1996) Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28(8):977–982 33. Moore TP, Thornton WE (1987) Space shuttle inflight and postflight fluid shifts measured by leg volume changes. Aviat Space Environ Med 58(9 Pt 2):A91–A96 34.