Beginning Data Science with R by Manas A. Pathak

By Manas A. Pathak

“We stay within the age of information. within the previous few years, the technique of extracting insights from information or "data science" has emerged as a self-discipline in its personal correct. The R programming language has turn into one-stop resolution for all sorts of information research. The becoming acclaim for R is due its statistical roots and an unlimited open resource package deal library.
The target of “Beginning info technology with R” is to introduce the readers to a couple of the worthwhile facts technology options and their implementation with the R programming language. The ebook makes an attempt to strike a stability among the how: particular techniques and methodologies, and knowing the why: going over the instinct in the back of how a selected method works, in order that the reader can use it on the matter to hand. This e-book might be invaluable for readers who're no longer accustomed to information and the R programming language.

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We fix this problem by replacing the erroneous values with the correct ones. The which() function selects a subset of the entries of the variable matching a condition. For example, we find the entries where the variable sex has the value ’F’ by: > which(data$sex == ’F’) [1] 210 211 212 The which() function indicates that these three rows have values sex = ’F’. To replace the values of these entries, we use the output of the which function as an index. > data$sex[which(data$sex == ’F’)] = ’Female’ We can also use the which function to slice the data over multiple variables using the boolean and & and boolean or | operators.

11 shows the output. numeric(payroll), league, sum)) 4 It is called a pie chart because of its resemblance to slices of a pie. numeric() function to prevent an overflow as sum(payroll) has values larger than the pie() function can handle. numeric() is not necessary. 5 4 Data Visualization 3e+08 4e+08 5e+08 44 0e+00 1e+08 2e+08 Central East West AL NL Fig. 10 Bar plot comparing total payrolls of American League (AL) and National League (NL) teams The pie chart consists of a circle with two slices, a shaded one corresponding to the NL and an unfilled one corresponding to the AL.

League) The facet parameter works for other visualizations generated by the qplot() function including scatterplots. 7 Formulae are first class objects in R. We will look at them more closely in the following chapters. 3 Layered Visualizations Using ggplot2 53 4e+08 payroll division Central East West 2e+08 0e+00 AL NL league Fig. 2 ggplot(): Specifying the Grammar of the Visualization As we discussed above, the ggplot package is based on the grammar of graphics. Using the ggplot() function, we can specify individual elements of the visualization separately.

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