Applications of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence to by National Research Council

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Com 54 APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE While varying versions of the limit-switch concept have been used, the most advanced force/torque sensors for robots have been developed at Draper Laboratories. The remote center of compliance (RCC) developed at Draper Laboratories, which allows passive compliance in the robots' behavior during assembly, has been commercialized by Astek and Lord Kinematics. Draper has in the last few years instrumented the RCC to provide active feedback to the robot.

Thus, primitive technology can be applied for useful tasks. However, most of the sophisticated and complex tactile sensors are in laboratory development. The subject of touch-sensor technology, including a review of research, relevance for robots, work in the laboratory, and predictions of future results, is covered in a survey article by Leon Harmon [18] of Case Western Reserve University Much of that excellent article is summarized below, and we refer the reader to it for a detailed review. The general needs for sensing in manipulator control are proximity) touch/slip, and force/torque.

Nonetheless, the fear of computers and of programming them continues. 45 Because robots operate on factory floors, some feel programming languages must be avoided. Again, this is not necessary, as experience with user-friendly systems has shown. The second factor is the desire to have industrial robots perform complex tasks and exhibit adaptive behavior. When the motions to be performed by the robot must follow complex geometrical paths, as in welding or assembly, it is generally agreed that a language is necessary.

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