By Christopher Lord
A Democratic Audit of the ecu Union offers a scientific evaluate of democracy within the ecu opposed to basically outlined standards. Christopher Lord bargains a double problem to generalizations a few democratic deficit within the european. at the one hand, it exhibits that criteria of democratic functionality within the ecu may possibly fluctuate throughout Union associations and decision-making techniques. nevertheless, it exhibits that they could range throughout key dimensions of democratic governance, together with citizenship, rights, participation, illustration, responsiveness, transparency and responsibility.
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Extra resources for A Democratic Audit of the European Union (One Europe or Several?)
Public control at least discourages those who hold office from acting only on their personal preferences without any attempt to anticipate the needs and values of citizens. Political equality at least means that each person’s preference has the same weight in the whole. The decision-rule ‘one person, one vote’ re-weights public decisions away from private distributions of power and resources. Deliberative standards fairly applied allow all points of view an opportunity to be argued towards a winning position, regardless of the initial number of their proponents.
One concern we will explore in Chapter 7 is that however active and empowered national parliaments are on Union issues, there may be structural constraints on how far the contributions of individual national democratic institutions can add up to an adequate system of public control at Union level. The ‘consequential argument’ for a democratic EU as a means of avoiding arbitrary domination may thus require a form of ‘divided government’ in which the controlling powers of national representatives are complemented by those of a representative institution directly elected at Union level.
171). European Institutions – which are not themselves subject to a legally binding Bill of Rights – could be a source of laws that lack the rights protections that, for example, help define what it is to be a German citizen yet still take priority to the rights enumerated in German Basic Law. A second difficulty is that membership of the EU may upset some of the institutional balances on which notions of democratic citizenship are predicated in particular Member States. This problem can arise in 42 A Democratic Audit of the European Union relation to ‘horizontal’ separations of powers between the executive and legislative branches of government in Member States, and to vertical divisions of power between their centrally and regionally elected authorities, with European integration, in both cases, strengthening the first element at the expense of the second.